Appointment and Role of Independent Reviewing Officers


Looked After Reviews Procedure

Dispute Resolution for Independent Reviewing Officers


IRO Handbook

The Children Act 1989 Guidance and Regulations - Volume 2: Care Planning, Placement and Case Review


In May 2017, this chapter was updated in relation to the role of the Independent Reviewing Officer in line with the Children Act 1989 Guidance and Regulations - Volume 2: Care Planning, Placement and Case Review. In particular, the IRO being sensitive to the close and active involvement of parents of a child looked after in a series of Short Breaks and problem-solving where there might be difficulties or issues. In addition, the role and responsibilities of the IRO have been revised and re-drafted (see Section 4, Role of the IRO in Relation to Children Subject to Care Proceedings).

1. Appointment of the Independent Reviewing Officer (IRO)

If Merton Council looks after a child, it must appoint an Independent Reviewing Officer (IRO) for that child's case. The name of the IRO and his/her contact details must be recorded on the child's case record.

The IRO must be appointed to the child's case and meet the child before the first Looked After Review and, as a matter of good practice, should be appointed within the first five working days.

Sibling groups, whether or not placed together, should have the same IRO and should be informed that they share the same IRO as their siblings, except where conflict of interest between siblings makes this inappropriate or the size of the sibling group makes this unmanageable. The issue of sibling contact should also be addressed in the IRO annual report.

The child should be given notification of his/her IRO, along with details about how to make contact with him/her. This could be by secure email or text. If the child is only informed verbally, then the date that s/he was given this information must be placed on the case record.

The IRO should be allocated for the duration that the child is looked after and should continue as the IRO if a child returns to care of the same local authority at a later date, if reasonably practicable.

Where a mother and/or father and their child are looked after, the child should have a different IRO.

If the IRO leaves the employment of the local authority, or for any other reason stops being the IRO for a particular child, s/he should introduce the new IRO to the child in person, as this fosters good practice.

2. Role of the IRO

There are two clear and separate aspects to the function of the IRO: chairing a child's review - see Looked After Reviews Procedure, and monitoring a child's case on an ongoing basis including whether any safeguarding issues arise.

As part of the monitoring function, the IRO also has a duty to monitor the performance of the local authority's function as a corporate parent and to identify any areas of poor practice. This should include identifying patterns of concern emerging not just around individual children but also more generally in relation to the collective experience of its Children Looked After of the services they receive.

Where IROs identify more general concerns around the quality of the authority's services to its Children Looked After, the IRO should immediately alert senior managers about gaps are identified in the assessment process or the delivery of service. Equally important, the IRO should recognise and report on good practice.

The responsibilities of the IRO include:

  • Promoting the voice of the child;
  • Ensuring that plans for Children Looked After are based on a detailed and informed assessment, are up to date, effective and provide a real and genuine response to each child's needs
  • Identifying any gaps in the assessment process or delivery of service and establishing how these will be met and by whom;
  • Ensuring that safeguarding paramount and to prevent any 'drift' in care planning and the delivery of services;
  • Making sure that the child understands how an advocate could help and his/her entitlement to one;
  • Monitoring the activity of the local authority as a corporate parent in ensuring that care plans have given proper consideration and weight to the child's wishes and feelings and that the child fully understands the implications of any changes made to his/her care plan.

In relation to short breaks:

  • Being sensitive to the close and active involvement of parents of a child looked after in a series of short breaks;
  • Problem-solving where there might be difficulties or issues;
  • Alerting the local authority if there are concerns that the placement is not meeting the child's needs.

3. Referral to CAFCASS

See also Dispute Resolution for Independent Reviewing Officers.

The IRO has the authority to refer a case to CAFCASS if he/she 'considers it appropriate to do so'.

The IRO must consider whether it is appropriate to refer a case to CAFCASS if:

  • In his/her opinion, the Local Authority has failed in any significant respect to prepare the child's Care Plan; review the child's case or effectively implement any decision in consequence of a review; or are otherwise in breach of their duties to the child in any material respect; and
  • Having drawn this to the attention of persons of appropriate senior managers in the Local Authority, the issues have not been addressed to IRO's satisfaction within a reasonable period of time.

4. Role of the IRO in Relation to Children Subject to Care Proceedings

The IRO will need to consider together with the Children's Guardian what communication is necessary in order to promote the best possible care planning process for each child.

As soon as the IRO has been appointed to a child subject to proceedings:

  • The IRO should provide the local authority legal adviser with the name of the IRO and with his/her contact details; and
  • The Children's Guardian should be advised of each LAC review meeting and invited, where appropriate;
  • The local authority legal adviser and the Children's Guardian should receive a copy of each review record.

The IRO should ensure that s/he is in discussion with the Children's Guardian at regular intervals, as is appropriate for each child's case and that the topics of discussion include:

  • The view and wishes of the child;
  • The current Care Plan;
  • Whether details of the Care Plan are subject to a formal dispute resolution process and if so details of this;
  • Any complaints that have been received about the case; and
  • Any issues raised in court in relation to the implementation of the current Care Plan.

5. Duty of Social Worker to Keep IRO Informed

The allocated Social Worker must inform the IRO of significant changes/events in the child's life including:

  • Any proposed change to the Care Plan, for example arising at short notice in the course of the proceedings following directions from the court;
  • Discharge from care by a person with parental responsibility when the child is Section 20 Accommodated;
  • Where agreed decisions from the review are not carried out within the specified timescale and an explanation as to why;
  • Significant changes to the contact arrangements;
  • Changes of the allocated social worker;
  • Any safeguarding concerns involving the child which may lead to enquiries being made under Section 47 of the 1989 Act ('Child Protection Enquiries') and outcomes of Child Protection Conferences or other meetings that are not attended by the IRO;
  • Complaints from or on behalf of the child, parent or carer;
  • Unexpected changes in the child's placement provision which may significantly impact on the placement stability or safeguarding arrangements;
  • Significant changes in the birth family circumstances for example births, marriages or deaths which may have a particular impact on the child;
  • If the child is charged with any offence leading to a referral to YOS/YJS, pending criminal proceedings and any convictions or sentences as a result of such proceedings;
  • If the child is excluded from school;
  • If the child has absconded or is missing from an placement;
  • Significant health, medical events, diagnoses, illnesses, hospitalisations or serious accidents; and
  • Panel decisions in relation to permanency;
  • Where a child is placed out of borough or at a distance (see Out of Area Placements Procedure).